Yokogawa provides consulting for alarm philosophy preparation, alarm identification and rationalization, defining alarm KPIs and reporting requirements all in the support of the ISA ISA Batch Promoting batch process control Yokogawa continues to be dedicated to the standardization of batch process control, promoting a unified method and architecture for designing batch process control schemes. A standardized approach to batch process control benefits batch processing companies by lowering their costs to build and operate batch processes and reducing the lead-time required to introduce new products. Yokogawa continues to be active in standards and educational organizations related to the development of batch control standards.
Protective cover Subsea equipment has to be protected from dropped objects during normal operations Subsea production processing systems market periods of intervention. This is especially important for sensitive seafloor-processing facilities.
Because of their retrievable modular design, protective covers are configured on an individual module basis so that a module can be removed while the others remain protected.
With the development of strong, lightweight composite materials, protective covers can be effective without being overly cumbersome. Subsea pig launcher To prevent potentially catastrophic plugs from wax and other deposits in pipelines, capability for regular pigging is desirable.
With subsea separation and liquid pumping, pigging operations do not have to impact production. Subsea pig launchers with rechargeable pig cartridges have been developed by a number of vendors. Although the technology is still evolving, it has been applied in the North Sea and Australia. Designs for rechargeable cartridges with as many as 12 pigs are available, depending on required line size and water depth.
Separation technology The heart of a seafloor processing system is the separator. Functionally, a subsea separator is no different from a topside unit. However, because of high cost of heavy-lift vessels and the remote nature of the installation, it needs to be lightweight and maintenance-free or require minimum maintenance.
Gravity separation Traditional separators depend on gravity to achieve phase separation. When fluid velocity is reduced to the terminal velocity of the liquid droplets, phase separation will take place.
With few enhancements, a gravity separator is no more than a wide spot in the flow path. A separator can be configured vertically or horizontally as long as it provides the volume to reduce flow velocity to the required level.
Because gravitational pull is relatively weak, gravity separators tend to be relatively large. In most cases, size does not impose a huge cost penalty for topside applications, but for high-cost seafloor installation and intervention, more compact solutions are needed.
Compact separator Numerous compact separator designs Fig. For ease of operation and maintenance no moving partsthe static cyclone is especially attractive for seafloor applications. Use of cyclone separators can significantly reduce the size of the pressure vessel.
Sand handling No process facilities can tolerate the huge amount of formation solids that comes with wellbore failures. But for the steady, small volume of fine particulates often produced with oil and gas, offshore producers have learned it is best to keep the solids suspended in the liquid phase until the stream reaches shore.
Not only is it difficult to desand offshore, but also disposal of the solids is problematic and costly. For seafloor processing systems, keeping the sand suspended and moving is probably the best strategy as well.
Use of a vertical cyclone separator will help facilitate this strategy. Depending on the expected size and shape of the particles, erosion resistance liners or construction material may be advisable.
Special care should be taken with pump-seals selection and maintaining smooth piping configurations. Vessel design for collapse pressure Structural design criteria for seafloor separators will be different from their topside counterpart.
For vessels intended for deep water, the key design criterion is most likely the external collapse pressure at depth. Based on American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASME vessel codes, vessel walls can be quite thick, causing even small-diameter vessels to be very heavy.
Use of high-strength steel and stiffening rings may help reduce vessel wall thickness and weight. It should be recognized that existing ASME vessel codes were not developed for the large collapse-pressure differential that deepwater separators may experience.
More research and development is needed to improve our understanding of this new operating environment. Technologies developed by the defense industry for submarines and ROVs may be applicable. Pump selection Once phase separation is accomplished on the seafloor, the liquid will have to be pressure-boosted for transport to the host platform or surface facilities.
A mechanical pump is best suited for the task. Efficient pumps are available for subsea applications. However, a pump, being a dynamic machine, will require regular lubrication and maintenance. For remote subsea installations, proper pump selection is imperative for longevity and success of the subsea process operation.
Multistage centrifugal pump Most seafloor oil- and water-pumping service will fall in the realm of multistage centrifugal pumps.Through extensive secondary research and interviews with industry experts, Visiongain has identified a series of market trends that will impact the Subsea Production & Processing Systems Market.
A subsea production system consists of a subsea completed well, subsea Christmas trees and wellhead systems, subsea tie-in to flow line system, jumpers, umbilical and riser system and subsea equipment to operate the well. Eaton is a global technology leader in power management solutions that make electrical, hydraulic and mechanical power operate more efficiently, reliably, safely and sustainably.
Global Subsea Production and Processing System Market: Overview. The worldwide subsea production and processing system market is prognosticated to gain an upper hand with the perpetual drop in onshore petroleum reserves and colossal energy kaja-net.comon: State Tower, 90 State Street, Suite , Albany, World Oil provides news, oil prices, data, statistics, shale reports and upstream industry trends relating to the exploration, drilling, completion and production of oil and gas, both onshore and.
The global subsea systems market is estimated to be USD Billion in , and is expected to grow at a CAGR of % from to Increasing deepwater production and exploration activities and investments by emerging economies in offshore exploration are major factors driving the subsea systems market.